In countries led by presidents, the president generally appoints the prime minister. However, there are some exceptions to the prime minister system. The United Kingdom is an example of this. Its presidency is still partly checked by opposition parties in its National Assembly.
When a country adopts a parliamentary system of government, the prime minister is typically the leader of the ruling party. Those who hold office as a prime minister in a parliamentary system often have fewer powers than those who hold office under a presidential system. For instance, a UK prime minister might only have the power of a secretary, and must rely on the support of other cabinet members to carry out the executive function of the government. A prime minister in a constitutional monarchy would have more powers.
In countries with a parliamentary system, the prime minister is typically chosen by the legislature. The appointment of a prime minister is based on the political composition of the legislature, and must be approved by the majority of the House of Commons. If the party claiming the position does not have the governing majority, the prime minister can be removed from office with a vote of no confidence.
While the head of state serves as the ceremonial figurehead, the prime minister is the official head of the executive branch. This means that the prime minister is responsible for a variety of duties, such as managing the civil service and carrying out presidential directives. He or she may also hold other roles, such as directing the financial planning of the country.
A prime minister usually has a longer term in office than a president. He or she is generally in office until a successor is in place. The prime minister can be dismissed with a “no confidence” vote in the legislature, but may remain in office if the legislature finds the incumbent unconvincing. Sometimes, the president can force the government to resign if the legislature does not hold confidence in the government.
In some countries, the prime minister is also the president. In the case of a federated government, the head of government is commonly referred to as the chief minister or premier. A president in a federated system is generally not a member of the legislature and is therefore able to appoint a cabinet, a group of people who have specific ministries.
In some parliamentary republics, the prime minister is appointed by the president on the basis of a parliamentary vote. In other parliamentary systems, the president can choose a prime minister, but only after the legislature has voted in support of the candidate.
A prime minister is the most senior member of the executive branch. Although they have less powers than a president, they are considered to have a greater level of authority. They have the power to appoint cabinet members, as well as the ability to dismiss individual ministers. They have the ability to make decisions on international matters and can direct the budget preparation of the country.